抗酸化ってなに?抗酸化の意味と気をつけたい食生活

「抗酸化」とよく聞きますが、抗酸化って何なの?と思っておられる方も実は多い事でしょう。この抗酸化は、私たちの人生に大きく関わってくるものです。特に、年を重ねるにつれて、意識しなければならないテーマでもあります。

では、抗酸化とは何でしょうか?そして、それが私たちとどう関わっているのでしょうか?そして、抗酸化を防ぐために気を付けたい食生活についてご紹介していきます。

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抗酸化とは?

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抗酸化とは何でしょうか?それを理解する前にまずは、体内で起きる酸化とは何か、酸化が起きるとどんな害があるのかを考えてみましょう。

酸化とは?

私たちは、空気を吸って生活していますが、その空気の21%は酸素です。酸素を体内に取り入れることで栄養素と結びつきエネルギーに変換されていくので、酸素は必要なものです。

しかし、体に取り入れる酸素がすべてエネルギーを作るために使われるわけではありません。使わない分が酸化するのです。金属のさびをイメージしてみてください。

体の中で酸化、つまり体の機能をさび付かせることが起きているのです。切ったりんごが空気に触れた時に茶色くなります。それと同じように体内でも酸素と細胞が結びつくと活性酸素に変わるのです。

酸化が体に及ぼす影響

活性酸素が増えて酸化が体内で進むと、健康な細胞を攻撃するので動脈硬化、がんなどの生活習慣病、シミやしわ、白髪などの老化などが生じるのです。年を重ねると活性酸素の量が増えるため、老化していくのです。

活性酸素は、ストレスや大量の飲酒、食品添加物、タバコ、激しい運動、紫外線、電磁波、放射線、環境ホルモン、殺虫剤、農薬、栄養不足などにより増えるとされています。

抗酸化とは?

酸化を抑えることを抗酸化と言います。つまり、活性酸素を取り除いて、様々な機能が低下しないように助け、生活習慣病や老化を予防したり抑えたりすることを指します。

もともと体に備わっているものですが、年齢と共に、また様々な要因により活性酸素が増えますから、日常的に食べ物やサプリなどを通して補うことが必要なのです。

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抗酸化作用のある栄養素−ビタミン

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抗酸化作用のある栄養素が含む食べ物を意識して摂り入れていくことが大切です。まずは、ビタミンがあります。具体的にどのようなビタミンが良いのか、多く含まれている食品をご紹介します。

ビタミンE

ビタミンEは、「若返りビタミン」と呼ばれるほど、活性酸素の増加を防いでくれる強い抗酸化作用を持った栄養素です。細胞膜や角膜の中に存在します。

この膜は、主に不飽和脂肪酸より構成されていますが、活性酸素の影響を受けると過酸化脂質に変えられてしまいます。しかし、このビタミンEが酸化の連鎖を断ち切ってくれるのです。

また、ビタミンEは、美白やシミ対策にも効果的で、メラニンの発生を抑えてくれます。また、毛細血管を広げ、血流改善をする働きをしてくれるので美肌効果も期待できます。

ビタミンEが多く含まれている食品は以下のようなものがあります。

・魚介類−ウナギ、あゆ、はまち、たらこ、カツオ
・野菜−かぼちゃ、モロヘイヤ、菜の花、アボカド、大豆
・ナッツ類−アーモンド、ピーナッツ、くるみ

ビタミンC

ビタミンCも抗酸化作用のある栄養素です。体内にある活性酸素を捕まえて、無害化する働きをしてくれます。

ビタミンEと一緒に摂ると相乗効果が期待できるとも言われています。ビタミンCを摂る事で、ビタミンEと同じようにメラニン色素の沈着を防ぐので、シミ対策となります。

また、コラーゲンの合成を促す働きもありますし、ストレスを和らげる効果もある栄養素です。

ビタミンCが多く含まれている食品は以下のものです。

・果物−レモン、はっさく、ポンカンなどの柑橘類、キウイフルーツ、アセロラ、イチゴ、パイナップル
・野菜−赤ピーマン、菜の花、カリフラワー、キャベツ、ほうれん草、ジャガイモ、サツマイモ、ブロッコリー、

ビタミンCは加熱すると栄養素が減ってしまうとされていますから、できるだけ生のまま摂り入れることをオススメします。

ベータカロテン

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ベータカロテンは、体内に摂り入れられると体内で必要な量がビタミンAに変換されます。このベータカロテンは、強力な抗酸化作用があります。

そして、ビタミンAがあることでビタミンEは十分は効果を発揮するとも言われていますので、抗酸化作用を期待するには、ビタミンE、C、Aの3つを摂り入れることをオススメします。

ベータカロテンは、皮膚や粘膜の細胞を正常にする働きもあるので、免疫力を高め美肌にも効果があります。

ベータカロテンが多く含まれている食品は次の通りです。

・野菜−ニンジン、かぼちゃ、ブロッコリー、モロヘイヤ、春菊、ほうれん草、にら
・果物−ミカンなどの柑橘類、すいか、マンゴー、アセロラ

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抗酸化作用のある栄養素−ミネラル

抗酸化作用のある栄養素としてミネラルが挙げられます。ミネラルの中でも、亜鉛とセレンという物質が抗酸化作用が強いとされています。

亜鉛

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活性酸素を分解してくれるのは酵素です。その酵素は、スーパーオキサイドディスムターゼ(SOD)と呼ばれます。この酵素により、活性酸素は水と酸素に分解されます。

年齢と共にこのSODは減っていきますが、亜鉛はこのSODを作る重要な成分なのです。ですから、亜鉛を積極的に摂るようにして、活性酸素の分解を促しましょう。

亜鉛が多く含まれている食品は次の通りです。

・魚介類−牡蠣、煮干し、
・肉類−牛ひき肉、ビーフジャーキー、豚レバー、
・玄米、小麦胚芽
・パルメザンチーズ

セレン

セレンも亜鉛と同じく、酵素を活性させるのに必要な物質です。ですから、活性酸素の分解を促してくれるミネラルなのです。これもビタミンEと共に摂るとより抗酸化に効果的とされています。

また、セレンにより免疫力も高まり、がんの再発を遅らせるという効果も実証されています。

セレンの多く含まれている食品は次の通りです。

・魚介類−イワシの丸干し、しらす干し、海藻、かつお節、たらこ、あんこうきも、
・肉類−豚や鶏や牛のレバー
・卵
・穀類−強力粉、フランスパン、パスタ、食パン
・ヒマワリの種、カシューナッツ、マスタード

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ファイトケミカルス

ファイトケミカルスとは、ファイトが植物、ケミカルスが物質や成分を意味していて、植物栄養素と呼ばれることもあります。

植物に含まれている6種類の主要な栄養素以外の成分を指します。摂取しなくても身体に害はありませんが、抗酸化作用があることで注目された栄養素です。

ファイトケミカルスを摂り入れると、活性酸素にくっついて自分が酸化するために、私たちの身体を酸化させることから守ってくれる働きをします。ファイトケミカルスの中から2つほどご紹介します。

ポリフェノール

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ポリフェノールは、植物の苦味、渋味、色素の成分の総称です。すべてのポリフェノールが強い抗酸化作用があります。細胞を若々しく保つ効果や、血流を改善したり、肌を引き締めたりする効果もあります。

ポリフェノールが含まれている食べ物は次の通りです。

・果物−ぶどう、ブルーベリー、プルーン
・野菜−大豆、しょうが
・緑茶や紅茶

リコピン

リコピンも抗酸化作用が強く、血糖値を下げ、動脈硬化の予防、がん予防、美白効果、ダイエット効果などに有効であるとされています。

次のような食べ物に多く含まれています。

・トマト、スイカ、ピンクグレープフルーツ、グァバ

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抗酸化作用のある食べ物を積極的に摂り入れましょう!

抗酸化とは、年齢を重ねると共にすべての人の身体の中で生じている酸化を抑制することです。抗酸化作用のある食べ物を意識して摂り入れることで、老化や生活習慣病の予防となります。

いつまでも若々しく健康でいられるために、日々の食生活を少し見直してみませんか?

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